Bragg–Cherenkov resonance and polaron-like decoupling of the Wigner solid on superfluid helium
Yu. P. Monarkha
B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkiv 61103, Ukraine
Received January 26, 2022, published online June 20, 2022
Nonlinear polaron-like dynamics of the two-dimensional Wigner solid (WS) on superfluid 4He are theoretically analyzed in different models and transport regimes for their similarities and distinctions. The Bragg–Cherenkov (BC) resonant excitation of surface waves and WS decoupling from surface dimples were usually considered in terms of a dc transport model. At the same time, field-velocity characteristics of the WS are measured under ac conditions and presented for time-averaged quantities. Here the nonlinear equation of motion of the WS coupled to surface dimples is studied for ac conditions using two different approaches based on fixing the driving field or the output current. Both approaches are shown to give similar results for the first harmonics of major transport properties. In the ac theory, the BC resonances for dimple inertia and the momentum relaxation rate have asymmetrical shapes, which is in contrast with the results of dc models. Even a quite low driving frequency is shown to affect the amplitude of the BC resonance and decoupling of the WS. Above the BC threshold, the effective mass of surface dimples as a function of the velocity amplitude strongly oscillates indicating multiple recoupling processes.
Key words: Wigner solid, 2D electron systems, nonlinear transport, superfluid helium.